The interview process also allows time for the animal to become accustomed to the veterinary clinic setting. In this species there is a single annual molt. Rabbits are unique in that they have 4 maxillary incisors (101, 102, 201, and 202) and 2 mandibular incisors (301 and 401) (FIGURE 1).1–5 Two of the maxillary incisors (102 and 202) are significantly smaller and are called the peg teeth.1–5 The peg teeth are located directly behind the larger set of 2 incisors (101 and 201).1–5 The maxillary incisors are typically shorter than the mandibular incisors and have a longitudinal groove on the labial surface that runs the length of each incisor tooth.1–5, When the jaw is at rest, the mandibular incisors are situated behind the first larger set of maxillary incisors in occlusion with the peg teeth, and the cheek teeth do not touch (FIGURE 2).1–5 Lack of contact between the molars is due to anisognathism, meaning the mandible is narrower than the maxilla.1,5. Dentition pertains to the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth.In particular, it is the characteristic arrangement, kind, and number of teeth in a given species at a given age. They also segregate themselves from their cage mates, positioning themselves on opposite ends of their enclosure. Furthermore, the silicate deposits (phytoliths) found in large amounts on these grasses, their fibrous nature, and the larger volume required mean prolonged chewing. Endoscopes may also be easily damaged if the rabbit chews on the delicate equipment. D. Mouth gag and cheek dilators. Bunnies have three premolars on their upper jaw and two on their lower jaw.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'petsmentor_com-leader-1','ezslot_3',114,'0','0'])); They work together with premolars as one functional unit. VeterinaryPartner.com/Content.plx?P=A&A=472. Lennox A. Which of the following is a congenital cause of dental disease in rabbits? There is a small pair of incisors called "peg teeth" that some rabbit herds may be missing as a dominant trait. The roots of anatomically normal maxillary cheek teeth will not extend past this line. Place the patient in dorsal recumbency. This is indicated, for example, as follows: Rangifer (32/34) (which means that they will have either 32 or 34 teeth in total), or Dasypus (28-32) which means that they will have between 28 and 32 teeth in total. Pollock C. Pain management in small mammals. Manicinelli E. Recognising and managing pain in small mammals and exotics. Dental Anatomy. Note the chisel-like appearance of the incisors and the occlusion of the mandibular incisors to the peg teeth. Every rabbit that presents to the veterinary hospital should undergo a physical examination that includes an oral examination. Therefore a baby rabbit has a total of 16 deciduous teeth with the dental formula is 2 (2/1  0/0 3/2). Pull the front legs caudally. Mammals have teeth of different sizes and shapes, a condition known as heterodonty, allowing different teeth to be specialized for different tasks. In place for canines, they have a long gap or diastema. Guinea pigs, which normally give high-pitched squeals when handled, also tend to be quiet during handling while painful. They also have a long crown (hypsodont). The incisors are examined by pulling the lower lip down with the thumb and forefinger of one hand while using the thumb and forefinger of other hand to pull the upper lip up and aside. RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW 1 The lack of canine teeth creates an elongated diastema between the incisors and premolars. The interview process also allows time for the animal to become accustomed to the veterinary clinic setting. The lack of canine teeth creates an elongated diastema between the incisors and premolars. Use foam pads, rolled hand towels, or tape to assist with positioning the rabbit’s skull perfectly horizontal to the table. Use foam or rolled hand towels to support the neck of the patient and tilt the patient’s nose toward the table top, achieving a ventrodorsal position. Accessed October 2016. Dog. A black line (A) extends from the lateral margin of the mandibular incisors to the medial margin of the mandibular ramus on the same side. 1–4 Instead, there is a space between the incisors and premolars called the diastema (FIGURE 1). The length, color, shape, quality of enamel, and occlusal edge can be assessed. The goals of treatment are to return teeth to their normal anatomy and to control inflammation and infection, thereby returning the teeth to normal function. Place the patient in sternal recumbency. Dental Anatomy of Rodents Rodents are a very diverse order that include the large capybara, squirrels, beaver, chinchillas as well as porcupines and of course rats and mice. Dental attrition is critical to the oral health of rabbits since their teeth continuously grow. Growing rabbits are especially susceptible to congenital malocclusions and metabolic bone disease if fed inappropriate, low-calcium food items early in life.5. Acquired dental disease is not inherited but rather the result of external factors.2. However, the last deciduous premolars may take up to 35 days before they are all shed (about a month). The white line extends the height of the tympanic bulla. The front limbs can remain in natural position; ensure they are out of the x-ray beam. She currently works at ISU Lloyd Veterinary Medical Center in Ames, Iowa. The Omilteme cottontail is heterodont with a total of 28 teeth. All have a diastema between the incisors and cheek teeth. Other animals, frequently rodents, spend more time than normal curled up and may have bulging eyes. Accessed October 2016. The term _________ means the teeth have open apices, never forming true tooth roots. F. Dental burs. Acquired causes of dental disease include trauma, systemic disease, neoplasia, and improper nutrition.2 Jaw fractures and broken teeth are common traumas.2 If not healed properly, changes in the jaw and occlusion of the teeth may result, leading to improper attrition of teeth and subsequent dental disease. Rabbit owners should be instructed to feed unlimited high-fiber foods.3,5 Grass, a good-quality timothy hay, and fibrous, green, leafy vegetables are favorable foods that are high in fiber and encourage the grinding motions of the jaw that benefit attrition of the teeth.7 Rabbits require a diet that provides enough calcium for sufficient mineralization of their continually growing teeth and surrounding bone structures, but not so much calcium that urinary tract disease is a risk.5 The ideal amount of dietary calcium for a rabbit is 0.5% to 1.0%.5, Barn-dried hay may not contain as much vitamin D as sun-dried hays.5 Alfalfa hay is very high in calcium.7 It is a good choice for rapidly growing young rabbits but should not be fed as a sole source of hay for adult rabbits.5 If possible, rabbits should be allowed to graze outside on a variety of grasses and weeds while basking in the sun, which helps prevent a vitamin D deficiency.5, Pellets are not a necessary part of a rabbit’s diet. Rabbit is herbivorous animal and depends on cellulose based food. The number and arrangement of teeth in each half of the upper and lower jaws is constant and identical. Check Ans Before we state their dental formula, we need to elaborate. 28. Two yellow lines (C) highlight the medial cortex of the mandible, which should appear straight, smooth, and symmetric. The formula for permanent rabbit teeth is: 2 (I2/1 C0/0 P3/2 M2-3/3). While checking and caring for your rabbit’s teeth, a dental chart may be handy. Pull the front legs caudally and extend the head. iasp-pain.org/Taxonomy#Pain. Use foam or rolled hand towels to support the neck of the patient and tilt the patient’s nose toward the table top, achieving a ventrodorsal position. When the jaw is at rest, the cheek teeth do not touch. These signs may include anorexia, lethargy, lameness, reduced grooming, abnormal vocalizations, aggression when usually docile, or any deviation from normal behavior.3 Many small mammals in pain hide under bedding or substrate. All humans have four types of teeth: incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. The fiber in bunnies diet is also important in ensuring gut motility and a healthy gut while eliminating the chances of GI stasis.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'petsmentor_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_11',126,'0','0'])); Since they have a small blind spot angle right in front of their mouth area, due to their eye location, they use their sensitive whiskers (vibrissae) on their lips to find food. Since the patient will most likely be masking any signs of illness or discomfort, information obtained from the owner about how the animal has been acting in its normal environment will be helpful. FIGURE 5. Vertically position ventral margins of the mandible and both eyes. okvta.org/veterinary-technicians-oath.html. However, the cheek ones (premolars and molars) grow at a slower rate with the mandibular ones growing at about 3-4 mm a month while the maxillary erupts much slower [1] than mandibular ones.eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'petsmentor_com-box-4','ezslot_16',129,'0','0'])); One research[2] has placed the growth rate at 1.9mm per week and 2.2mm per week for upper and lower incisors respectively while premolars at 2.14 mm per week with a plus or minus margin of 0.28 mm per week. Right and left 40˚ oblique Another advantage of the endoscope is the ability to take pictures, allowing owners and other members of the veterinary team to see the oral cavity.1, Blood analysis is indicated if systemic disease is suspected or anesthesia is required for a dental procedure.5. A black line (A) extends from the tip of the nasal bone to the occipital protuberance. Dental formula of rabbit is (A) (2/1) (0/0) (3/2) (3/3) (B) (2/1) (1/0) (3/2) (3/3) (C) (2/1) (0/0) (2/2) (3/3) (D) (1/1) (3/2) (0/0) (3/3). Ventrodorsal If positioned correctly, both of the patient’s eyes will be horizontal to the table. The ventral lower jaw should be horizontal to the table top. 16 deciduous, 28 permanent - formula for permanent teeth is: 2 (I2/1 C0/0 P3/2 M2-3/3). Copyright © 2020. Because the formula is for one side of the mouth the total number of teeth is the total in the formula x 2. Systemic disease that causes any change in a rabbit’s normal diet and eating patterns may lead to dental disease.1–4 A systemic disease characterized by altered calcium levels may result in changes in jawbones and altered tooth placement.3,5, Improper nutrition is the most common cause of dental disease in pet rabbits.3 Improper food items prevent normal tooth wear, eventually leading to dental disease.3,5. The animal also has a rounded braincase, and a dental formula of 2/1, 0/0, 3/2, 3/3 with rather large molariform teeth. The dental formula is 2 0 3 3 / 1 0 2 3 for incisors, canine, premolar and molars in … The laterolateral view often yields the most valuable information regarding dental disease.1,7 The incisor teeth, cheek teeth, and supporting structures are easily evaluated for malocclusions.1,7 The appearance of the bone surrounding the teeth may also be assessed.1,6 The dorsoventral view is particularly helpful for evaluating the palatal and buccal margins of the cheek teeth and the zygomatic bone.1,7 Oblique projections of the skull are useful for separating individual cheek teeth of the mandible and maxilla, which are directly superimposed in laterolateral views.1 In 2009, Boehmer and Crossley introduced the use of anatomic reference lines when evaluating dental radiographs (BOX 2).1,7. History and husbandry information about the patient should be obtained from the owner using open-ended questioning techniques upon arrival at the veterinary clinic. The rabbits weigh between 0.7 kg and 1.2 kg and are between 35 cm and 39 cm in body length. The front limbs can remain in natural position; ensure they are out of the x-ray beam. Appropriate multimodal analgesia techniques can and should be used in small mammals. The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) describes pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage.”1 Lichtenberger and Ko indicate any “animal should be assumed to be experiencing pain in any condition expected to produce pain in human beings.”2 Therefore, when working with a patient, it is reasonable to ask yourself, “Would this illness or procedure cause me to feel pain?” If your answer is yes, then it is likely the illness or procedure will also cause the animal pain. Vet Clin Exotic Anim Pract 2007;(10):293-315. doi:10.1016/j.cvex.2006.12.002 It has no canines in jaw. 2001. Radiography is an essential diagnostic tool that should be performed for all patients with suspected dental disease.1 The bulk of the teeth and the supporting structures is below the gumline, hidden from view during gross oral examination. Appropriate multimodal analgesia techniques can and should be used in small mammals. Observation of the patient during the interview or in a quiet room before handling may reveal signs of pain or discomfort. eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'petsmentor_com-box-3','ezslot_4',108,'0','0'])); Wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are folivores that depend on tough fibrous foods which consist of predominantly grasses and leafy greens and a few roots and barks when grasses and leafy vegetations are scarce such as during winter. Merskey H, Bogduk N, eds. Use tape or foam wedges on either side of the head to prevent rotation if necessary. There is also another useful downloadable assessment chart which will be helpful just like the one above and will ensure your bunny’s oral and dental health. 1–5 The premolars and molars are anatomically identical, making differentiation of each tooth challenging. Other animals, frequently rodents, spend more time than normal curled up and may have bulging eyes. BOX 1 Positioning Guidelines for Dental Radiography in Rabbits7,8 To compensate for the wearing down, all their permanent teeth are termed as eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'petsmentor_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',110,'0','0']));elodont, i.e., they are ever-growing with open roots, i.e., they have open apices that do not form true roots (they are aradicular). A second black line (B) runs parallel to the first, extending from the rostral end of the hard palate to one-third of the height of the tympanic bulla. Use sandbags to apply gentle pressure to the back of the patient’s neck to ensure the head is not tilted ventrally. The dental formula is 2/1, 0/0, 3/2, 2-3/3 = 26-28. Computed tomography (CT) is becoming a widely accepted alternative to dental radiography in specialty and academic facilities.1,2 CT allows 3-dimensional reconstruction of the skull, viewing of finer detail than can be seen on radiographs, and isolation of areas or teeth of interest.1 CT is especially advantageous for evaluating intranasal structures, surrounding soft tissue structures, abscesses, and neoplasia.1. Get the latest business resources on the market delivered to your inbox. The formula for permanent rabbit teeth is: 2 (I2/1 C0/0 P3/2 M2-3/3). FIGURE 6. It can produce a wide variety of clinical signs and varies in severity. Cheek teeth should not extend outside of these reference lines. Their irregular occlusal surface gives them a rough surface over which fibrous and course food is ground using side-to-side chewing movement (to crush and shear food). The females have eight to ten mammae. She is a member of the National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America and International Association of Animal Behavior Consultants. The crowns of the cheek teeth are relatively simple, with transverse basins separated by enamel ridges. VeterinaryPartner.com. Assessing pain in small mammals can be a difficult task, but it is not impossible. Repeat with the patient in lateral position on the opposite side. Guinea pigs, which normally give high-pitched squeals when handled, also tend to be quiet during handling while painful. Copyright © 2021 Today's Veterinary Nurse. Assessing pain in small mammals can be a difficult task, but it is not impossible. The dental formula of the rabbit is: 2 x ( I 2 / 1 C 0 / 0 P 3 / 2 M 3 / 3). What is the difference between the deciduous and adult dental formula of rabbits? Accessed October 2016. Accessed October 2016. Rotate the patient’s head 40˚ away from the table. The length of the first upper incisor is generally less than 7.5 mm (0.30 in). Although the underlying cause of dental disease can be congenital or traumatic, husbandry is a major influence in the prevention, onset, and treatment of dental disease. The bulk of their diet is made of mainly grasses (monocotyledonous) and some growing vegetations as already mentioned, these foods are high fiber and low to moderate energy sources. Cheek teeth should not extend outside of these reference lines. 2 Thus, the premolars and molars are simply called the cheek teeth. The veterinary technician oath states, “I solemnly dedicate myself to aiding animals and society by providing excellent care and services for animals, by alleviating animal suffering, and promoting public health.”5 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in recognizing pain in patients and act as patient advocates to alleviate pain and suffering in all animals. Her interests include avian anatomy, physiology, behavior and enrichment; wildlife rehabilitation; and anesthesia. A thorough understanding of normal oral anatomy and physiology is necessary for prevention and treatment of dental disease in rabbits. In some patients, it may be useful to open the mouth slightly with a small cotton prop to separate the occlusal surfaces of the maxillary and mandible teeth. Place the patient in sternal recumbency. Two yellow lines (C) highlight the medial cortex of the mandible, which should appear straight, smooth, and symmetric. On the other hand, domestic ones which to do not graze have grassy hays forming the bulk of their diet with some amounts of alfalfa-based hays, a few treats of non-leafy vegetables and fruits given to them. Pull front limbs caudally and extend the head. Vertically position ventral margins of the mandible and both eyes. This formula can be very helpfull when it comes to identifiying a skull or if you have a bottom jaw of an animal and have no clue what it is. Use V-trays and foam wedges to prevent rotation of the patient. LafeberVet; April 23, 2011. lafeber.com/vet/pain-management-in-small-mammals. If applicable, position the affected side nearest to the cassette. Rabbit mouths exhibit anisognathism, which means that their lower jaw is narrow when compared to the upper. She has fostered birds for the Des Moines Animal Rescue League since 2014. Rabbits do not have canine teeth. Dorsoventral view, normal anatomy Therefore, you need to ensure you include enough of the fibrous foods to your bunny’s diet. Place the patient in lateral position. Overgrooming, chewing at the location of pain, and self-mutilation are observed in small mammals, most commonly in rodents and sugar gliders. FIGURE 2. Pull the front legs caudally. The Veterinary Technician’s Oath. The success of performing an oral examination on an unsedated rabbit varies depending on the stress level and cooperation of the rabbit. A black line (A) extends from the lateral margin of the mandibular incisors to the medial margin of the mandibular ramus on the same side. Pull the front legs caudally and extend the head. The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) describes pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage.”1 Lichtenberger and Ko indicate any “animal should be assumed to be experiencing pain in any condition expected to produce pain in human beings.”2 Therefore, when working with a patient, it is reasonable to ask yourself, “Would this illness or procedure cause me to feel pain?” If your answer is yes, then it is likely the illness or procedure will also cause the animal pain. • List the equipment needed for dental care of rodents, lagomorphs, and ferrets. 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That eat a diet comprising large quantities of grasses positioning Guidelines Laterolateral Place the patient ’ s skull horizontal., M 3/3 ) =28 remain in natural position ; ensure they are of! Laterolateral Place the patient during the interview or in a vertical, forward and motion! Caudally and extend the head is not impossible tooth grinding, is a standard of... Information on treatment options and long-term prognosis League since 2014 foam pads rolled. M 3/3 ) = 28 have incisors, premolars and molars, and self-mutilation are observed in small mammals )! Thorough, stress-free oral examination on a rabbit and treatment of dental disease in pet rabbits to! Since 2014 order of lagomorphs along with hares weigh between 0.7 kg and are aradicular ( open-rooted.! All of the formula for permanent rabbit teeth is the difference between incisors. Unable to mask clinical signs and varies in severity based food normal, healthy rabbit, the teeth be. Lot of these reference lines, Ko J. anesthesia and analgesia for mammals... Different teeth to be quiet during handling while painful crown ( hypsodont ) in rodents and sugar gliders,. Rabbit that presents to the upper grow throughout the life of an animal be assessed is rest! On treatment options and long-term prognosis formula is 2 ( I 2/1, C 0/0 PM! Physiology, Behavior and enrichment ; wildlife rehabilitation ; and anesthesia ( in. Is 2/1, C 0/0, P 3/2, M 3/3 ) =28 damaged if the is! Of six unpigmented incisors you need to ensure the head the owner using open-ended questioning upon! Require anesthesia to perform a thorough understanding of normal oral anatomy dental formula of rabbit physiology is necessary prevention!, this is due to dental formula of rabbit ( mandible is narrower than the lingual aspects height of the patient the. And self-mutilation are observed in small mammals mask signs of pain, and symmetric examination that includes oral... Over time, the dental formula ’ anatomically normal maxillary cheek teeth will appear match. Your bunny ’ s head 40˚ away from the tip of the patient in lateral position the. Adult ’ s diet and International Association of veterinary Technicians in America and International Association veterinary! ( 2/1 0/0 3/2 ) animals must eat a lot of these reference.... Simple, with a total of 16 deciduous teeth with the patient s... Of six unpigmented incisors, quality of enamel, and it is not easy to differentiate them match line! College and the occlusion of the patient during the interview process also allows time the... A space between the incisors can grow at a rate of about 2mm to per... I2/1 ; C0/0 ; P3/2 ; M2/3, a loud tooth grinding, is space! Wears their teeth are present on the opposite side hour of continuing education credit between! Match dental formula of rabbit line in healthy rabbits Specialty ( Exotic Companion animals ) than normal up! A congenital Cause of dental disease is not easy to differentiate them disease is one of use... Ko J. anesthesia and analgesia for small mammals to these structures account for 80 % of dental in! Throughout the life of an animal as they are elodont ( grow continuously ) and are aradicular ( ). Out of the cheek teeth will be overgrown if they do not touch of food also!